The surgical treatment of a child requires patience and understanding of families from whom having a child with a birth defect may be devastating. Most birth defects can be corrected with a reasonable long term survival and prognosis. Complex anatomical defects may need to be reconstructed in stages. Some common birth defects are the absence of anus, absence of food pipe, bowel in the chest, loss of continuity of bowel, defects of abdominal wall. They require initial treatment in the neonatal age with some requiring further surgery after a few months.
Children also may face certain conditions which are unique to childhood such as intussusceptions, certain malignancies. Some children have complex congenital problems which require close follow up and long term management.