This is surgery of the chest, for the lungs and esophagus. Some children with lung infection may develop fluid in the space between with lung and chest causing breathing difficulty. It is usually drained with a tube in the chest. Occasionally the lung is unable to expand because it is trapped by the infection, then the child may need surgery (Thoracoscopic or open) the free the lung.
In some children there may be bowel in the chest due to the absence of the muscle separating the chest and abdomen. Others may have abnormal swellings in the lung causing recurrent infections or difficulty in breathing.